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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-11

Factors influencing the occurrence and progress of sodium hypochlorite accident: A narrative and update review


Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Manipal University College Malaysia, Jalan Batu Hampar, Bukit Baru, 75150 Melaka, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. A R Vivekananda Pai
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Manipal University College Malaysia, Jalan Batu Hampar, Bukit Baru, 75150 Melaka
Malaysia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcd.jcd_422_22

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Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is one of the most commonly used irrigant because of its several advantages. However, it is highly cytotoxic and can lead to severe tissue damage. NaOCl accident occurs when it is extruded beyond root confines into periapical or periradicular tissues. It is an irrigant mishap which can be life threatening and/or cause residual or long term or permanent consequences with malpractice and medico-legal implications. There are many factors which can influence the occurrence and progress of NaOCl accident. These factors can be broadly categorized as patient (host)-, tooth-, operator-, and NaOCl-related factors. They can be further categorized as predisposing and extent factors. It is vital for a clinician to thoroughly understand and identify various influencing factors to prevent NaOCl accident with its associated consequences including any potential medico-legal issues. The purpose of this article is to provide a narrative review on various factors which predispose to the occurrence of NaOCl accident and influence its extent and/or outcome.


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