Journal of Conservative Dentistry
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 356-362

Comparative evaluation of decalcifying agents for dissolution of pulp stones: An in vitro study

1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Karnataka, India
2 Faculty of Pharmacy, Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kavimalar Ravichandran
63, Muthukumar Nagar, 4Th Street, Rathnapuri, Coimbatore - 641 027, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcd.jcd_35_22

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Background: Despite constant advances in science, obscurity remains in the efficient removal of pulp stones to aid in successful root canal treatment. In this context, chemical means of dissolving pulp stones were explored. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and to compare the efficacy of decalcifying agents on the dissolution of pulp stones. Materials and Methods: The study was divided into two groups for pulp stone analysis (21 samples) and dentin analysis (54 samples). Twenty-one pulp stones from patients aged 18–70 who underwent root canal treatment were collected and divided into three subgroups (n = 7) randomly. They were subjected to chemical treatment in a labeled glass container with 5 ml of the respective chemical agents, such as 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution (positive control), no treatment (negative control), and newly developed Physiological Simulated Decalcifying Agent (PSDA). At the end of the study period (24 h), the samples were removed, rinsed with deionized water, and subjected to physical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy –dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Under dentin analysis, 54 maxillary premolars scheduled for orthodontic extraction without caries or extensive restorations were selected, following which 2-mm thick transverse dentinal sections at the cementoenamel junction level were obtained and randomly divided into two groups for SEM (n = 21) and microhardness analysis (n = 33). The samples were subjected to respective chemical treatment groups similar to pulp stones for 24 h and analyzed using SEM, EDS, and microhardness analysis. Results: Postchemical treatment with the newly developed decalcifying solution, the pulp stones showed the absence of nodular crystallites and surface softening under SEM and a decrease in the calcium level under EDS analysis. Concerning the microhardness of dentin, no significant changes could be observed. Conclusion: The newly explored PSDA was found to be efficacious in the decalcification of pulp stones at a clinically relevant time of 24 h, without significantly affecting the structural integrity and the hardness values of dentin.

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