Journal of Conservative Dentistry
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 290-296

Biomechanical studies on the effect of iatrogenic dentin removal on vertical root fractures

1 Dental Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Ontario M5G 1G6, Canada
2 Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, University Hospital Regensburg UKR, Regensburg, Germany

Correspondence Address:
Dr. A Kishen
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, 124 Edward Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1G6
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_126_18

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Introduction: The aim of this study was to understand the mechanism by which iatrogenic root dentin removal influences radicular stress distribution and subsequently affects the resistance to vertical root fractures (VRF) in endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: The experiments were conducted in two phases. Phase 1: freshly extracted premolar teeth maintained in phosphate-buffered saline were instrumented to simulate three different degrees of dentin removal, designated as low, medium, and extreme groups. Micro-Ct analyzes were performed to quantitatively determine: (a) the amount of dentin removed, (b) the remaining dentin volume, and (c) the moment of inertia of root dentin. The specimens were then subjected to thermomechanical cycling and continuous loading to determine (a) the mechanical load to fracture and (b) dentin microcracking (fractography) using scanning electron microscopy. Phase 2: Finite element analysis was used to evaluate the influence of dentin removal on the stress distribution pattern in root dentin. The data obtained were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (P < 0.05). Results: Phase 1: A significantly greater volume of dentin was removed from teeth in extreme group when compared to low group (P < 0.01). The mechanical analysis showed that the load to fracture was significantly lower in teeth from extreme group (P < 0.05). A linear relationship was observed between the moment of inertia and load to fracture in all experimental groups (R2 = 0.52). Fractography showed that most microcracks were initiated from the root canal walls in extreme group. Phase 2: The numerical analysis showed that the radicular stress distribution increased apically and buccolingually with greater degree of root canal dentin removal. Conclusions: The combined experimental/numerical analyses highlighted the influence of remaining root dentin volume on the radicular bending resistance, stress distribution pattern, and subsequent propensity to VRF.

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