Journal of Conservative Dentistry
Home About us Editorial Board Instructions Submission Subscribe Advertise Contact e-Alerts Login 
Users Online: 2528
Print this page  Email this page Bookmark this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size

Table of Contents   
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 240-245
Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Goa Dental College and Hospital, Bambolim, Goa - 403 601, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission11-Sep-2010
Date of Decision30-Sep-2010
Date of Acceptance05-Oct-2010
Date of Web Publication29-Nov-2010


Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. They often occur without any episode of acute pain and are discovered on routine radiographic examination. The incidence of cysts within periapical lesions varies between 6 and 55%. The occurrence of periapical granulomas ranges between 9.3 and 87.1%, and of abscesses between 28.7 and 70.07%. It is accepted that all inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Studies have reported a success rate of up to 85% after endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesions. A review of literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, Lesion Sterilization and Repair Therapy, and the Apexum procedure. Monitoring the healing of periapical lesions is essential through periodic follow-up examinations.

Keywords: Calcium hydroxide; cyst; decompression; healing; granuloma; periapical

How to cite this article:
Fernandes M, Ataide Id. Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. J Conserv Dent 2010;13:240-5

How to cite this URL:
Fernandes M, Ataide Id. Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. J Conserv Dent [serial online] 2010 [cited 2023 Nov 30];13:240-5. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Bacterial infection of the dental pulp may lead to periapical lesions. [1] They are generally diagnosed either during routine dental radiographic examination or following acute pain in a tooth. [2] Most periapical lesions (>90%) can be classified as dental granulomas, radicular cysts or abscesses. [3],[4] The incidence of cysts within periapical lesions varies between 6 and 55%. [5] The occurrence of periapical granulomas ranges between 9.3 and 87.1%, and of abscesses between 28.7 and 70.07%. [6] There is clinical evidence that as the periapical lesions increase in size, the proportion of the radicular cysts increases. However, some large lesions have been shown to be granulomas. [7] The definitve diagnosis of a cyst can be made only by a histological examination. However, a preliminary clinical diagnosis of a periapical cyst can be made based on the following: (a) The periapical lesion is involved with one or more non-vital teeth, (b) the lesion is greater than 200 mm 2 in size, (c) the lesion is seen radiographically as a circumscribed, well-defined radiolucent area bound by a thin radiopaque line, and (d) it produces a straw-colored fluid upon aspiration or as drainage through an accessed root canal system. [8]

The ultimate goal of endodontic therapy should be to return the involved teeth to a state of health and function without surgical intervention. [9] All inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. [10] Surgical intervention is recommended only after nonsurgical techniques have failed. [11] Besides, surgery has many drawbacks, which limit its use in the management of periapical lesions. [12],[13] Various studies have reported a success rate of up to 85% after endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesions. [14],[15],[16] A high percentage of 94.4% of complete and partial healing of periapical lesions following nonsurgical endodontic therapy has also been reported. [17]

Search methodology

An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed database with appropriate MeSH headings and key words related to the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. A hand search of journals was also conducted to enhance the electronic search results.

Case selection

The current philosophy in the management of periapical lesions includes the initial use of nonsurgical methods. When this treatment approach is not successful a surgical approach may be adopted. [18] The following factors must be considered, while deciding on the management approach:

Diagnosis of the lesion

Many bone destroying lesions closely resemble endodontically related periapical lesions on radiographs. Some of these nonendodontic lesions include ameloblastoma, central fibroma, giant cell lesions, fibrous dysplasia, central hemangioma, primary malignancies, metastatic neoplasms, and inflammatory bone diseases. Teeth related to nonendodontic periapical lesions generally test vital to pulp testing methods. It is essential that the clinician establishes the correct diagnosis to avoid unnecessary treatment of vital healthy teeth. [19],[20]

Proximity of the periapical lesion to adjacent vital teeth

When the periapical lesion is in close proximity to the apices of vital teeth, adopting a surgical approach may result in injury to the blood vessels and nerves of the adjacent teeth, thereby compromising their vitality. [12],[13]

Encroachment on anatomical structures

Surgery increases the risk of damage to the anatomic structures such as mental foramen, inferior alveolar nerve and / or artery, nasal cavity and maxillary sinus. [19] Also, the aspiration-irrigation technique, a nonsurgical method, is not recommended where adjacent tissue spaces or sinus cavities are involved. [18] In such cases, alternative nonsurgical methods can be used.

Patient cooperation

Considerable pain or discomfort can be experienced by the patient during or after a surgical procedure. A nonsurgical approach would be recommended for apprehensive and uncooperative patients. [19] However, patient cooperation is also essential, while using the nonsurgical methods as several follow-up appointments may be required.

Age of the patient

Very old patients may not tolerate surgical procedures well and hence may require nonsurgical treatment modalities. [19]

Obstructions in the root canal system

Ledges, calcified canals, separated instruments may prevent access to the apical foramen and may warrant a surgical approach in managing periapical lesions related to such teeth. [21]

Time involved for treatment

Enhanced healing kinetics are observed after performing apical surgery in teeth with periapical lesions. [22] Although the surgery has many pitfalls, it may be advisable in cases when the patient will be lost to follow-up before complete healing. [11]

Cases refractory to nonsurgical management methods

Inflammatory apical true cysts and the presence of cholesterol crystals have been suggested as possible causes that prevent healing of periapical lesions. [23] Surgery is recommended for such cases that do not respond favorably to nonsurgical methods of treatment. [11]

   Methods for Nonsurgical Managment of Periapical Lesions Top

Conservative root canal treatment without adjunctive therapy

Bhaskar has suggested that instrumentation should be carried 1 mm beyond the apical foramen when a periapical lesion is evident on a radiograph. This may cause transitory inflammation and ulceration of the epithelial lining resulting in resolution of the cyst. [24] Bender in his commentary on Bhaskar's hypothesis has added that penetration of the apical area to the center of the radiolucency establishes drainage and relieves pressure. Once the drainage stops, fibroblasts begin to proliferate and deposit collagen; this compresses the capillary network, and the epithelial cells are thus starved, undergo degeneration, and are engulfed by the macrophages. [25] Although this proves to be an effective method Shah suggests the possibility that quiescent epithelial cells may be stimulated by instrumentation in the apical region, with resultant proliferation and cyst formation, and thus stressed on the need for follow-up for a period of at least two years. [16] Healing of large cysts like well-defined radiolucencies following conservative root canal treatment has been reported. Although the cystic fluid contains cholesterol crystals, weekly debridement and drying of the canals over a period of two to three weeks, followed by obturation has led to a complete resolution of lesions by 12 to 15 months. [26]

Decompression technique

The decompression technique involves placement of a drain into the lesion, regular irrigation, periodic length adjustment, and maintenance of the drain, for various periods of time. [27] The drain could either be 'I' shaped pieces of rubber dam, [28] polyethylene tube along with a stent, [29] hollow tubes, [30],[31] a polyvinyl tubing, [27] suction catheter [32] or a radiopaque latex tubing. [33] There is no standard protocol as to the length of time necessary to leave the drain. It may be different for different kinds, sizes or locations of lesions. [33] It can vary between two days [27] to five years. [32] Daily irrigation of the lesion can be carried out by the patient through the lumen of the drain using 0.12% chlorhexidine. [33],[34] The advantages of this technique are; it is a simple procedure, it minimizes the risk of damaging adjacent vital structures, and is easily tolerated by the patient. [27] However, several disadvantages have also been noted; patient compliance is very essential, inflammation of the alveolar mucosa, persistence of the surgical defect at site, development of an acute or chronic infection, displacement or submergence of the drainage tube. [35],[36] Rees suggests placement of a small amount of red wax over the end of the drain to prevent ulceration of the labial or buccal mucosa adjacent to the drain. [32] The decompression technique is contraindicated in cases of large dental granulomas or any solid cellular lesion, assince there is an absence of a fluid-filled cavity to decompress. [27]

Active nonsurgical decompression technique

This technique uses the Endo-eze vacuum system (Ultradent, Salt Lake, Utah) to create a negative pressure, which results in the decompression of large periapical lesions. The high-volume suction aspirator is connected to a micro 22-gauge needle, which is inserted in the root canal and activated for 20 minutes, creating a negative pressure, which results in aspiration of the exudate. When the drainage partially stops, the access cavity is closed with temporary cement, which helps in maintaining bacterial control. Unlike the decompression technique, this technique is minimally invasive as the entire procedure is done through the root canal and causes less discomfort for the patient. [36]

Aspiration and irrigation technique

Hoen et al, suggested aspiration of the cystic fluid from the periapcial lesion using a buccal palatal approach. In this technique, an 18-gauge needle attached to a 20 ml syringe is used to penetrate the buccal mucosa and aspirate the cystic fluid. A second syringe filled with saline is then used to rinse the bony lesion. The new needle is inserted through the buccal wound and passed out through the palatal tissue creating a pathway for the escape of the irrigant. [18] Accumulation of cystic fluid within a confined bony cavity leads to increased hydrostatic pressure, which causes additional osteoclastic activity and growth of the cyst. [37],[38] Aspiration leads to decreased hydrostatic pressure, which slows the osteoclastic activity and enlargement of the defect. The gentle irrigation cleanses the bony defect and initiates bleeding and subsequent clot formation, which could be the start of the healing mechanism. [18] The disadvantage of this technique is the creation of buccal and palatal wounds that may cause discomfort to the patient. [39]

Aspiration through the root canal technique

To overcome the disadvantage of the traditional aspiration-irrigation technique, a simple technique of aspiration through the root canal has been described. In this technique, aspiration of the cystic fluid is done through the root canal by passing the aspirating needle through the apical foramen. This technique eliminates the creation of buccal and palatal wounds, as in the traditional aspiration-irrigation technique. This minimizes the discomfort that the patient may experience. Severely curved canals may limit the use of this technique as the canal anatomy prevents the aspirating needle from reaching the apical foramen. This technique may also not be favorable in narrow-rooted teeth, for example, the mandibular incisors, as the root canal will have to be widened excessively to allow the aspirating needle to pass into the bony cavity, thus weakening the tooth structure. [39]

However, it is advisable not to use either aspiration-irrigation or aspiration through the root canal techniques where adjacent tissue spaces or sinus cavities are involved, when there is no fluid aspiration from the lesion, or in infected periapical lesions. [18],[39]

Method using calcium hydroxide

Calcium hydroxide is a widely used material in endodontic treatment because of its bactericidal effects. [40],[41],[42],[43],[44] It is thought to create favorable conditions for periapical repair and stimulate hard tissue formation.[45],[46] Souza et al,. suggested that the action of calcium hydroxide beyond the apex may be four-fold: (a) anti-inflammatory activity, (b) neutralization of acid products, (c) activation of the alkaline phosphatase, and (d) antibacterial action. [47] A success rate of 80.8 [15] and 73.8% [48] has been reported with calcium hydroxide, when used for endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesions. It has been suggested that the presence of a cyst may impede or prevent root-end closure of an immature pulpless tooth even with the use of calcium hydroxide. [49] Contrary to this, ΗaliΊkan and Tόrkόn have reported a case in which apical closure and periapical healing have occurred in a large cyst-like periapical lesion following non-surgical endodontic treatment with calcium hydroxide paste and a calcium hydroxide-containing, root-canal sealer. [35] Extrusion of calcium hydroxide beyond the apex was suggested as a factor for the lack of early healing of periapical lesions. [50] However, many investigators advocate that direct contact between calcium hydroxide and the periapical tissues is beneficial for the inductive action of the material. [46],[51] A high degree of success has been reported by using calcium hydroxide beyond the apex in cases with large periapical lesions. [15],[35],[47] It is barium sulphate that is added to the calcium hydroxide paste for radiopacity, which is not readily resorbed when the paste extrudes beyond the apex. However, it has been reported that even though complete resorption of the paste does not occur in some cases, the periapical radiolucency around the paste resolves. [15]

Some studies have reported that long-term exposure of root dentin to intracanal calcium hydroxide leads to a decrease in the fracture resistance of teeth. [52],[53] A method using calcium hydroxide, demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft, and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) has been described by Chhabra et al., for apexification of an immature tooth associated with a large periapical lesion. Calcium hydroxide is used as an antibacterial agent for only 15 days, following which it is irrigated out of the canal using sodium hypochlorite. The demineralized, freeze-dried bone allograft is then packed in the periapical area to form an apical matrix, with the help of finger pluggers. The demineralized bone matrix also acts as an osteoconductive and possibly as an osteoinductive material. MTA is then compacted over the matrix, forming a 5 mm apical plug. [54]

Lesion sterilization and repair therapy

The Cariology Research Unit of the Niigata University School of Dentistry has developed the concept of 'Lesion Sterilization and Tissue Repair (LSTR)' therapy that uses a triple antibiotic paste of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline, for disinfection of oral infectious lesions, including dentinal, pulpal, and periradicular lesions. [55],[56],[57] Repair of damaged tissues can be expected if lesions are disinfected. [58] Metronidazole is the first choice because it has a wide antibacterial spectrum against anaerobes. [59] However, some bacteria are resistant to metronidazole, and hence, ciprofloxacin and minocycline are added to the mix. [60] The combination of drugs has been shown to penetrate efficiently through dentine from the prepared root canals especially from the ultrasonically irrigated root canals. [55] The commercially available drugs are powdered and mixed in a ratio of 1:3:3 (3 Mix) and mixed either with macrogol-propylene glycol (3 Mix-MP) or a canal sealer (3 Mix-sealer). [58] A 1:1:1 ratio of the drug combination has also been used. [61] Although the volume of the drugs applied in this therapy is small, care should be taken to check if the patients are sensitive to chemicals or antibiotics. [62] A disadvantage of the triple antibiotic paste is tooth discoloration induced by minocycline. Cefaclor and fosfomycin are proposed as possible alternatives for minocycline, in terms of their antibiotic effectiveness, but further clinical studies are needed to demonstrate their efficacy in the root canal. [63]

Apexum procedure

Surgically treated periapical lesions show enhanced healing kinetics compared with those treated nonsurgically. [22] Surgical removal of the periapical, chronically inflamed tissue allows a fresh blood clot to form, thereby converting a chronic inflammatory lesion into a new granulation tissue, where healing might proceed much faster. [64],[65] The Apexum procedure uses two sequential rotary devices, the Apexum NiTi Ablator and Apexum PGA Ablator (Apexum Ltd, Or Yehuda, Israel), designed to extend beyond the apex and mince the periapical tissues on rotation in a low-speed handpiece, followed by washing out the minced tissue. [66] A clinical trial reported significantly faster periapical healing in the Apexum-treated group (95%) than in the conventional root canal treatment group (39%) at six months, with significantly less postoperative discomfort or pain. However, whether the procedure was able to remove all the periapical inflammatory tissue was beyond the scope of the study conducted. Further studies regarding this procedure are in progress. [22]

Materials under research


Simvastatin, a hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, is used as a cholesterol reducing agent that also possess anti-inflammatory activities. Simvastatin has significantly suppressed the progression of induced rat periapical lesions, possibly by diminishing the cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61) expression in osteoblasts , a potential osteolytic mediator, which in turn suppressed the infiltration of macrophages. [67]


Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol of green tea that has anti- inflammatory properties. EGCG suppressed the progression of apical periodontitis in a rat model, possibly by diminishing Cyr61 expression in osteoblasts and, subsequently, macrophage chemotaxis into the lesions. [68]

Assessment of healing of periapical lesions

Repair of periradicular tissues consists of a complex regeneration involving bone, periodontal ligament, and cementum. [69] The area of mineral loss gradually fills with bone and the radiographic density increases. [70] If the cortical plate is perforated, healing begins with the regeneration of the external cortical plate and proceeds from the outside of the lesion toward the inside. [71] Maxillary lesions resolve faster than mandibular lesions due to the presence of a more extensive vascular network in the maxilla, which facilitates resolution. Anterior lesions of both the maxilla and mandible heal at a faster rate than posterior lesions due to the close proximity of the buccal and lingual plates in the anterior segments. [17]

Although clinical as well as radiographic data are used to monitor cases, the relative absence of clinical symptoms in chronic apical periodontitis makes the assessment primarily a radiographic one. Various methods can be used to assess the healing of periapical lesions by interpretation of periodic recall radiographs. [70] The success-failure criteria laid down by Strindberg is primarily a system designed to detect changes in radiographic appearance. The criteria for success are that: (a) the contours, width, and structure of the periodontal margin are normal; (b) the periodontal contours are widened mainly around the excess filling; and the criteria for failure are: (a) a decrease in the periradicular rarefaction; (b) unchanged periradicular rarefaction; (c) an appearance of new rarefaction or an increase in the initial rarefaction. [71] Even though the periapical conditions are viewed as a continuous process of healing or developing periodontitis, the system is strictly dichotomous, that is, there is no middle ground between success and failure. [70] The area measurement assessment method can be used to monitor the healing of periapical lesions. The rate of repair can be calculated by dividing the size differential between the initial and follow-up visits by the number of elapsed months. On the basis of the average healing rate of approximately 3 mm 2 /mo, a 30 mm 2 lesion will require 10 months for complete resolution. If the lesion becomes larger, remains the same size or demonstrates a below average rate of healing, then surgical intervention must be considered. However, the measurement involves only two dimensions, because it is not possible to evaluate the buccolingual extent. [17] Another assessment tool is the 'periapical index' (PAI), which provides an ordinal scale of five scores ranging from 'healthy' to 'severe periodontitis with exacerbating features'. [72] Of late, an ultrasound with color power Doppler has been demonstrated to be an efficacious monitoring tool in the healing of periapical lesions. [73]

At times, scar tissue can develop after conventional endodontic treatment as well as after periapical surgery. [3] If there are no untoward clinical findings, it indicates fibrous healing or healing by scar formation. The radiograph usually shows a trabecular bone pattern radiating from the center that appears as a reduced, but incompletely resolved radiolucency. [74]

Various authors have stressed on the importance of a long observation time for treated teeth with periapical lesions. [14],[48],[68] In a clinical review by ΗaliΊkan, a follow-up examination ranged from two to ten years.[48] Shah suggested that patients should be recalled at intervals of three months, six months, one year, and two years, to assess the healing of periapical lesions. There is always the possibility that quiescent epithelial cells may be stimulated by instrumentation in the apical region, with resultant proliferation and cyst formation. [16] Hence, follow-up is extremely essential for a period of at least two years. [75]

   Conclusion Top

Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions have shown a high success rate. A nonsurgical approach should always be adopted before resorting to surgery. The decompression and aspiration-irrigation techniques can be used when there is drainage of cystic fluid from the canals. These techniques act by decreasing the hydrostatic pressure within the periapical lesions. When there is no drainage of fluid from the canals, calcium hydroxide or the triple antibiotic paste can prove beneficial. Periodic follow-up examinations are essential and various assessment tools can be used to monitor the healing of periapical lesions. The surgical approach can be adopted for cases refractory to nonsurgical treatment, in obstructed or nonnegotiable canals and for cases where long-term monitoring of periapical lesions is not possible.

   References Top

1.Mφller AJ, Fabricius L, Dahlιn G, Ohman AE, Heyden G. Influence on periapical tissues of indigenous oral bacteria and necrotic pulp tissue in monkeys. Scand J Dent Res 1981;89:475-84.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Barbakow FH, Cleaton-Jones PE, Friedman D. Endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical radiolucent areas in a general dental practice. Oral Surg 1981;51:552-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Bhaskar SN. Oral surgery--oral pathology conference No. 17, Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Periapical lesions--types, incidence, and clinical features. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1966;21:657-71.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Lalonde ER, Leubke RG. The frequency and distribution of periapical cysts and granulomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986;25:861-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Nair PNR, Pajarola G, Schroeder HE. Types and incidence of human periapical lesions obtained with extracted teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1996;81:93-102.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Schulz M, von Arx T, Altermatt HJ, Bosshardt D. Histology of periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery. J Endod 2009;35:634-42.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Natkin E, Oswald RJ, Carnes LI. The relationship of lesion size to diagnosis, incidence, and treatment of periapical cysts and granulomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1984;57:82-94.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Eversole LR. Clinical outline of oral pathology: Diagnosis and treatment. 2 nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger; 1984. p. 203-59.   Back to cited text no. 8
9.Salamat K, Rezai RF. Nonsurgical treatment of extraoral lesions caused by necrotic nonvital tooth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986;61:618-23.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Lin LM, Huang GT, Rosenberg PA. Proliferation of epithelial cell rests, formation of apical cysts, and regression of apical cysts after periapical wound healing. J Endod 2007;33:908-16.   Back to cited text no. 10
11.Nicholls E. Endodontics. 3 rd ed. Bristol: John Wright Sons Ltd.,1984. p. 206.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Neaverth EJ, Burg HA. Decompression of large periapical cystic lesions. J Endod 1982;8:175-82.   Back to cited text no. 12
13.Walker TL, Davis MS. Treatment of large periapical lesions using cannalization through involved teeth. J Endod 1984;10:215-20.   Back to cited text no. 13
14.Sjogren U, Hagglund B, Sundqvist G, Wing K. Factors affecting the long-term results of endodontic treatment. J Endod 1990;16:31-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.ΗaliΊkan MK, ͺen BH. Endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis using calcium hydroxide: A long-term study. Endod Dent Traumatol 1996;12:215-21.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Shah N. Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: A prospective study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1988;66:365-71.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Murphy WK, Kaugars GE, Collet WK, Dodds RN. Healing of periapical radiolucencies after nonsurgical endodontic therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1991;71:620-4.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Hoen MM, LaBounty GL, Strittmatter EJ. Conservative treatment of persistent periradicular lesions using aspiration and irrigation. J Endod 1990;16:182-6.   Back to cited text no. 18
19.Morse DR, Bhambani SM. A dentist's dilemma: Nonsurgical endodontic therapy or periapical surgery for teeth with apparent pulpal pathosis and an associated periapical radiolucent lesion. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1990;70:333-40.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Wood NK. Periapical lesions. Dent Clin North Am 1984;28:725-66.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Moiseiwitsch JRD, Trope M. Nonsurgical root canal therapy treatment with apparent indications for root-end surgery. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1998;86:335-40.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Metzger Z, Huber R, Slavescu D, Dragomirescu D, Tobis I, Better H. Healing kinetics of periapical lesions enhanced by the Apexum procedure: A clinical trial. J Endod 2009;35:153-9.   Back to cited text no. 22
23.Lin LM, Ricucci D, Lin J, Rosenberg PA. Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts. J Endod 2009;35:607-15.   Back to cited text no. 23
24.Bhaskar SN. Nonsurgical resolution of radicular cysts. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1972;34:458-68.  Back to cited text no. 24
25.Bender IB. Commentary on General Bhaskar's hypothesis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1972;34:469-76.  Back to cited text no. 25
26.Al-Kandari AM, Al-Quoud OA, Gnanasekhar JD. Healing of large periapical lesions following nonsurgical endodontic therapy: Case reports. Quintessence Int 1994;25:115-9.  Back to cited text no. 26
27.Loushine RJ, Weller RN, Bellizzi R, Kulild JC. A 2-day decompression: A case report of a maxillary first molar. J Endod 1991;17:85-7.   Back to cited text no. 27
28.Sommer RF, Ostrander FD, Crowley MC. Clinical Endodontics. 2 nd, ed. Philadelphia, USA: W.B. Saunders and Co.; 1964.  Back to cited text no. 28
29.Patterson SS. Endodontic therapy: Use of a polyethylene tube and stint for drainage. J Am Dent Assoc 1964;69:710-4.  Back to cited text no. 29
30.Colquhoun NK. Treatment of large periapical lesions by an indwelling tube. J Br Endod Soc 1969;3:14-6.   Back to cited text no. 30
31.Freedland JB. Conservative reduction of large periapical lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1970;29:455-64.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Rees JS. Conservative management of a large maxillary cyst. Int Endod J 1997;30:64-7.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Martin SA. Conventional endodontic therapy of upper central incisor combined with cyst decompression: A case report. J Endod 2007;33:753-7.   Back to cited text no. 33
34.Brondum N, Jensen VJ. Recurrence of keratocysts and decompression treatment. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1991;72:265-9.  Back to cited text no. 34
35.ΗaliΊkan MK, Tόrkόn M. Periapical repair and apical closure of a pulpless tooth using calcium hydroxide. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1997;84:683-7.   Back to cited text no. 35
36.Mejia JL, Donado JE, Basrani B. Active non-surgical decompression of large periapical lesions- 3 case reports. J Can Dent Assoc 2004;70:691-4.  Back to cited text no. 36
37.Toller PA. Newer concepts of odontogenic cysts. Int J Oral Surg 1972;1:3-16.   Back to cited text no. 37
38.Seltzer S. Endodontology. 2 nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger; 1988. p. 2391-428.  Back to cited text no. 38
39.Fernandes M, Ataide I. Non-surgical management of a large periapical lesion using a simple aspiration technique: A case report. Int Endod J 2010;43:536-42.  Back to cited text no. 39
40.Sjφgren U, Figdor D, Spεngberg L, Sundqvist G. The antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as a short-term intracanal dressing. Int Endod J 1991;24:119-25.  Back to cited text no. 40
41.Stuart KG, Miller CH, Brown Jr CE, Newton CW. The comparative antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1991;72:101-4.  Back to cited text no. 41
42.Holland R, Soares IJ, Soares IM. Influence of irrigation and intracanal dressing on the healing process of dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis. Endod Dent Traumatol 1992;8:223-9.  Back to cited text no. 42
43.Katebzadeh N, Hupp J, Trope M. Histological periapical repair after obturation of infected root canals in dogs. J Endod 1999;25:364-8.  Back to cited text no. 43
44.Leonardo MR, Silva LA, Leonardo RT, Utrilla LS, Assed S. Histological evaluation of therapy using a calcium hydroxide dressing for teeth with incompletely formed apices and periapical lesions. J Endod 1993;19:348-52.  Back to cited text no. 44
45.Cvek M. Prognosis of luxated non-vital maxillary incisors treated with calcium hydroxide and filled with gutta-percha. A retrospective clinical study. Endod Dent Traumatol 1992;8:45-55.  Back to cited text no. 45
46.Ghose LJ, Baghdady VS, Hikmat BY. Apexification of immature apices of pulpless permanent anterior teeth with calcium hydroxide. J Endod 1987;13:285-90.  Back to cited text no. 46
47.Souza V, Bernabe PF, Holland R, Nery MJ, Mello W, Otoboni Fiho JA. Tratamento nao curugico de dentis com lesos periapicais. Rev Bras Odontol 1989;46:36-46.  Back to cited text no. 47
48.ΗaliΊkan MK. Prognosis of large cyst-like periapical lesions following nonsurgical root canal treatment: A clinical review. Int Endod J 2004;37:408-16.  Back to cited text no. 48
49.West NM. A possible impediment to biologic root-end closure. J Endod 1980;6:842-4.  Back to cited text no. 49
50.Vernieks AA, Messer LB. Calcium hydroxide induced healing of periapical lesions: A study of 78 non-vital teeth. J Br Endod Soc 1978;2:61-9.  Back to cited text no. 50
51.Rotstein I, Friedman S, Katz J. Apical closure of mature molar roots with the use of calcium hydroxide. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1990;70:656-60.  Back to cited text no. 51
52.Doyon GE, Dumsha T, von Fraunhofer JA. Fracture resistance of human root dentin exposed to intracanal calcium hydroxide. J Endod 2005;31:895-7.  Back to cited text no. 52
53.Andreasen JO, Munksgaard EC, Bakland LK. Comparison of fracture resistance in root canals of immature sheep teeth after filling with calcium hydroxide or MTA. Dent Traumatol 2006;22:154-6.  Back to cited text no. 53
54.Chhabra N, Singbal KP, Kamat S. Successful apexification with resolution of the periapical lesion using mineral trioxide aggregate and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft. J Conserv Dent 2010;13:106-9.  Back to cited text no. 54
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
55.Sato I, Kurihara- Ando N, Kota K, Iwaku M, Hoshino E. Sterilization of infected root- canal dentine by topical application of a mixture of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and minocycline in situ. Int Endod J 1996;29:118-24.  Back to cited text no. 55
56.Hoshino E, Kurihara-Ando N, Sato I, Uematsu H, Sato M, Kota K, et al. In vitro antibacterial susceptibility of bacteria from infected root dentin to a mixture of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and minocycline. Int Endod J 1996;29:125-30.  Back to cited text no. 56
57.Hoshino E, Takushige T. LSTR 3Mix-MP method- better and efficient clinical procedures of lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR) therapy. Dent Rev 1998;666:57-106.  Back to cited text no. 57
58.Takushige T, Cruz EV, Moral AA, Hoshino E. Endodontic treatment of primary teeth using a combination of antibacterial drugs. Int Endod J 2004;37:132-8.  Back to cited text no. 58
59.Ingham HR, Selkon JB, Hale JH. The antibacterial activity of netronidazole. J Antimicrob Chemother 1975;1:355-61.  Back to cited text no. 59
60.Sato T, Hoshino E, Uematsu H, Kota K, Noda T. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to combinations of drugs of bacteria from carious and endodontic lesions of human deciduous teeth. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1993;8:172-6.  Back to cited text no. 60
61.KόrΊat E, KόΊtarci A, Ozan ά, TaΊdemir T. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of dens invaginatus in a mandibular premolar with large periradicular lesion: A case report. J Endod 2007;33:322-4.   Back to cited text no. 61
62.Φzan ά, Er K. Endodontic treatment of a large cyst-like periradicular lesion using a combination of antibiotic drugs: A case report. J Endod 2005;31:898-900.  Back to cited text no. 62
63.Kim JH, Kim Y, Shin SJ, Park JW, Jung IY. Tooth discoloration of immature permanent incisor associated with triple antibiotic therapy: A case report. J Endod 2010;36:1086-91.  Back to cited text no. 63
64.Metzger Z. Macrophages in periapical lesions. Endod Dent Traumatol 2000;16:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 64
65.Metzger Z, Abramovitz I. Periapical lesions of endodontic origin. In: Ingle JI, Bakland LK, Baumgartner JC, editors. Ingle's endodontics. 6 th ed. Hamilton, ON, Canada: B C Decker; 2008. p. 494-519.  Back to cited text no. 65
66.Metzger Z, Huber R, Slavescu D, Tobis I, Better H. Enhancement of healing kinetics of periapical lesions in dogs by the Apexum procedure. J Endod 2009;35:40-5.  Back to cited text no. 66
67.Lin SK, Kok SH, Lee YL, Hou KL, Lin YT, Chen MH, et al. Simvastatin as a novel strategy to alleviate periapical lesions. J Endod 2009;35:657-62.  Back to cited text no. 67
68.Lee YL, Hong CY, Kok SH, Hou KL, Lin YT, Chen MH, et al. An extract of green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, reduces periapical lesions by inhibiting cysteine-rich 61 expression in osteoblasts. J Endod 2009;35:206-11.  Back to cited text no. 68
69.Ψrstavik D. Radiographic evaluation of apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment results: A computer approach. Int Endod J 1991;41:89-98.  Back to cited text no. 69
70.Huumonen S, Ψrstavik D. Radiological aspects of apical periodontitis. Endod Topics 2002;1:3-25.  Back to cited text no. 70
71.Strindberg LZ. The dependence of the results of pulp therapy on certain factors. An analytical study based on radiographic and clinical follow-up examinations. Acta Odontol Scand 1956;14:1-175.  Back to cited text no. 71
72.Ψrstavik D, Kerekes K, Eriksen HM. The periapical index: A scoring system for radiographic assessment of apical periodontitis. Endod Dent Traumatol 1986;2:20-34.  Back to cited text no. 72
73.Rajendran N, Sundaresan B. Efficacy of ultrasound and color power Doppler as a monitoring tool in the healing of endodontic periapical lesions. J Endod 2007;33:181-6.  Back to cited text no. 73
74.Chong BS. Managing endodontic failure. Chicago: Quintessence Pub.; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 74
75.Bender IB, Seltzer S, Soltanoff W. Endodontic success: A reappraisal of criteria II. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1966;22:780-802.  Back to cited text no. 75

Correspondence Address:
Marina Fernandes
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Goa Dental College and Hospital, Bambolim, Goa - 403 601
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.73384

Rights and Permissions

This article has been cited by
1 Utility of Ultrasonography for Diagnosing and Differentiating Periapical Granuloma from Radicular Cyst
Wang Jia, Huang Jing, Gong Xia, Ding Angang, Zhou Wei, Zhang Pengfei, Ran Shujun, Mao Mengying, Huang Zhengwei, Gu Shensheng
Academic Radiology. 2023;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Application of apical negative pressure irrigation in the nonsurgical treatment of radicular cysts: A case report
Gong-Pei Chen, Yan-Zhen Zhang, Dan-Hua Ling
World Journal of Clinical Cases. 2023; 11(15): 3612
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Non-surgical management of a large periapical lesion: A case report
Salahudheen Nadakkavil, KRadhakrishnan Nair, G Praveena, KR Surya
Kerala Dental Journal. 2023; 46(1): 33
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 A CBCT Healing Assessment of Nonsurgical Endodontic Management of Two Trauma-induced Large Periapical Lesions
Kawther BelHaj Salah, Najet Aguir Mabrouk, Saida Ziada, Souad Sahtout
Conservative Dentistry and Endodontic Journal. 2023; 7(1): 23
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Evaluation of Dental Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitude Regarding the Diagnosis of Oral Cancer Through Histopathological Examination of Granulation Tissue
Monika Kumari, Hina Naim Abdul, Chirag Vyas, Ambar Khan, Reya Shree, Garima Sharma
Cureus. 2023;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Comparison Between the Bone Lid Technique and the Traditional Technique in Surgical Treatment of the Posterior Mandibular Lesions: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Mohamad Husam Abu hawa, Zaed Shehri, Issam Alkhouri
Cureus. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Radiographical Assessment of Periapical Lesion Resolution Following Nonsurgical Root Canal Treatment with Different Irrigation Protocols and Intracanal Medicaments
Pratik Agrawal, S Lata, Gaurav Patri, Surabhi Soumya, Prasanti Pradhan
World Journal of Dentistry. 2022; 13(4): 362
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Plasma Rich in Growth Factors in the Treatment of Endodontic Periapical Lesions in Adult Patients: 3-Dimensional Analysis Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography on the Outcomes of Non-Surgical Endodontic Treatment Using A-PRF+ and Calcium Hydroxide: A Retros
Katarzyna Machut, Agata Zóltowska
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(20): 6092
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Non-surgical management of a periapical lesion with bioceramic sealer – A case report
Sankkesh Jain, Lalitagauri Mandke
IP Indian Journal of Conservative and Endodontics. 2022; 7(2): 85
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 An in vitro evaluation of smear layer removal with non-activated self adjusting file, xp-endo finisher and rotary canal brush: A scanning electron microscopic study
KrishnaveniM Marella, NagalakshmiR Sampathi, LeelaN T. Pavani, ChandraS Manduru, GopiK Moosani
Journal of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences. 2022; 11(1): 17
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Ultrasound Imaging versus Radiographs in Differentiating Periapical Lesions: A Systematic Review
Shankargouda Patil, Ahmed Alkahtani, Shilpa Bhandi, Mohammed Mashyakhy, Mario Alvarez, Riyadh Alroomy, Ali Hendi, Saranya Varadarajan, Rodolfo Reda, A. Thirumal Raj, Luca Testarelli
Diagnostics. 2021; 11(7): 1208
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Kavimalar Kavimalar, Sonia Khatri, Sylvia Mathew, Nithin Shetty
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Management of cutaneous sinus tract of odontogenic origin: Eighteen months follow-up
Ines Kallel, Eya Moussaoui, Islem Kharret, Asma Saad, Nabiha Douki
Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2021; 24(2): 231
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Effect of triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide on the rate of healing of periapical lesions: A systematic review
NKiran Kumar, Biji Brigit, BS Annapoorna, SavithaB Naik, Seema Merwade, K Rashmi
Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2021; 24(4): 307
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Granulation Tissue Enhanced with Aspirin and Omega-3 PUFAs as a Local Adjunct to the Surgical Treatment of Periodontitis
Filip Hromcik, Jan Vokurka, Michal Kyr, Lydie Izakovicova Holla
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 2021; 123(2): 2000259
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Investigation of the effectiveness of CBCT and gray scale values in the differential diagnosis of apical cysts and granulomas
Meryem Etöz, Mehmet Amuk, Fatma Avci, Aysegül Yabaci
Oral Radiology. 2021; 37(1): 109
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Magnetic resonance imaging versus cone beam computed tomography in diagnosis of periapical pathosis – A systematic review
Kiran Kumar N, Seema Merwade, Pavithra Prabakaran, Laxmi Priya C H, Annapoorna B S, Guruprasad C N
The Saudi Dental Journal. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Ultrasound imaging for the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions of endodontic origin in comparison with histopathology – a systematic review and meta-analysis
V. Natanasabapathy, B. Arul, A. Mishra, A. Varghese, S. Padmanaban, S. Elango, S. Arockiam
International Endodontic Journal. 2021; 54(5): 693
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Outcome of Root Canal Treatment of Necrotic Teeth with Apical Periodontitis Filled with a Bioceramic-Based Sealer
Kawther Bel Haj Salah, Sabra Jaâfoura, Mahdi tlili, Marwa Ben Ameur, Saida Sahtout, Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni
International Journal of Dentistry. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Nonsurgical management of a large periapical lesion – A case report
Amitha Krishna, Ramesh Kumar M, Elsy P Simon, Chandini Raveendran, Mariyam Sanoona
IP Indian Journal of Conservative and Endodontics. 2020; 5(2): 75
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 The Use of Calcium Hydroxide as an Intracanal Medicament in the Treatment of Large Periapical Lesions. A Review
Timea Dako, Mihai Pop, Julia Fulop, Janos Kantor, Monica Monea
Acta Medica Transilvanica. 2020; 25(2): 58
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Nonsurgical Management of Periapical Lesion: A Case Series
V Susila Anand, Almas Janu
Journal of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics. 2020; 5(2): 99
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Non Surgical Management of Large Periapical Lesions Using Calcium Hydroxide - A Report of Two Cases
Nidambur Vasudev Ballal, Isha Jain
The Journal of Dentists. 2016; 4(1): 24
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Endodontic treatment of large periapical lesions: An alternative to surgery
Asunción Mendoza-Mendoza, Carolina Caleza-Jiménez, Alejandro Iglesias-Linares, Beatriz Solano-Mendoza, Yañez-Vico RM
Edorium Journal of Dentistry. 2015; 2(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

    Methods for Nons...

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1935    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 24    

Recommend this journal