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Year : 2006  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 131-133
Evaluation of antimicrobial and demineralization inhibitory effects of fluoritop-SR® and bifluorid-12® - An invitro study

Government Dental College, Pt. Bhagwat Dayal Sharma, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Science, Haryana, India

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This study was conducted to compare the caries preventive efficacy of Fluoritop-SR® , the first fluoride varnish manufactured in India, with Bifluorid-12® . The demineralization inhibitory and antimicrobial effects were studied. In the present study, the demineralization inhibitory effect of the bifluorid-12® (available throughout the world) was higher and comparable to the Fluoritop-SR®.

Keywords: Demineralization, Calcium, Phosphorus, Varnishes, Antimicrobial

How to cite this article:
Rai B, Jain R, kharb S, Anand S C. Evaluation of antimicrobial and demineralization inhibitory effects of fluoritop-SR® and bifluorid-12® - An invitro study. J Conserv Dent 2006;9:131-3

How to cite this URL:
Rai B, Jain R, kharb S, Anand S C. Evaluation of antimicrobial and demineralization inhibitory effects of fluoritop-SR® and bifluorid-12® - An invitro study. J Conserv Dent [serial online] 2006 [cited 2022 Aug 9];9:131-3. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Various fluoride varnishes, gel are variable and are successful in preventing caries. The use of a fluoride varnish as a caries preventive agent has been explored because it has advantages over other topical fluoride vehicles in terms of safety, case of application, and fluoride (F) concentration at the enamel surface. [1],[2] Band and Bang (1970) [3] in their invitro investigation showed F-penetration at an average depth of 50 nm after 4 minutes application of APF varnish (1.23 percent), however prolonging the application time to 72 hours, increased the penetration to about 170 nm. Prolonging the application time not only increases the penetration of F in enamel, but, results in a more bound from of fluoride (F) as well. Also, topical fluoride solutions soon after application, probably representing as unreacted F and CaF2 leaches away [4],[5],[6] . Bruyn and Arends [7] reviewed the studies conducted between 1968 and 1985 and reported caries reductions in permanent teeth ranging from 18 to 77 percent. A more recent clinical trial by Tewari and Associates [8] conducted in India showed a caries reduction of 70 to 75 percent.

The present study is aimed to assess the demineralization inhibitory effect of the two fluoride varnishes i.e. fluoritop-SR® and Bifluorid­ 12® in terms of calcium and phosphorus dissolutions.

   Materials and Methods Top

The demineralization inhibitory effect of the two fluoride varnishes was studied. One hundred freshly extracted permanent teeth each without any carious lesions or restorations were selected for study. The teeth were first cleaned with pumice slurry and polishing brush in a slowly rotating hand piece. The teeth were then thoroughly washed under running water. Each tooth was cut into four sections using a high diamond tipped disc. The equal size (2x2x3 mm) teeth sections were again rinsed under running water to clear them of debris and particles. They were then gently air dried. The dentin portions of each section covered with modelling wax and only the enamel portions were exposed. Of the four enamel sections, one was left without any fluoride varnish application and served as the control. The permanent tooth sections are designated as group A i.e. group A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 , represented the control, fluoritop-SR® and bifluorid-12v respectively. The two sections were treated with fluoritop-SR® and bifluorid-l2® . Separate camel haired brushes were used for applying the fluoride varnishes. One layer of the varnishes were applied and allowed to dry and remain in place for 24 hours.

Artificial saliva was prepared in Biochemistry and Microbiology Department of Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak. Synthetic salivary pH was adjusted by the portable standard digital pH meter using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Synthetic saliva at three different pH 5.2, 6.8 and 7.4 were prepared. The calcium and phosphorus level of synthetic saliva was measured before the addition of tooth section.

After 48 hours of application of the fluorides varnishes, the three sections of the tooth, added to synthetic saliva at pH 5.2, 6.8 & 7.4 respectively were tested to estimate the calcium and phosphorous content at the beginning of the study by atomic absorption spectroscopy and spectrophotometry respectively. [9],[10] The fourth section was preserved for further use. The phosphorous and calcium ion content of the synthetic salivary samples at three different pH 5.2, 6.8 & 7.4 were measured. Change in calcium and phosphorous ions at zero, 24 hours, 48 hours and expressed as parts as million (ppm).

   Observations and Results Top

The values of calcium and phosphorus dissolutions in various groups are giving in [Table 1]. Lower value of calcium and phosphorus dissolution was observed with fluoritop SR® as compared to bifluorid-12® (p<0.001).

   Discussion Top

The growing emphasis on preventive dentistry has led to a rapid development of newer and more innovative treatment modalities aimed at early disease prevention. [11] Following the work of Dean at al. [12] , who established fluoride as a potent agent for caries prevention various epidomiological studies has shown that even where the water supply is optimally fluoridated the topical effect of a fluoride in the tooth environment is important. Calcium and phosphorous dissolutions were estimated as a measure of the demineralization inhibitory effect. In the present study, a marked decrease was observed in the calcium and phosphorous dissolutions from the control sections to all the fluoride varnish pre-treated section in permanent teeth groups. These results are consistent with previous study conducted by Luoma H & Luoma R. [13] In the present study, the least values for calcium and phosphorous dissolutions were obtained with Fluoritop-SR® groups in permanent teeth groups. This may be attributed to the greater uptake of F by enamel in the tooth sections and treated by fluoroprotector® inspite of its lower F content [13],[14],[15],[16],[17] . Also, values obtained by the Fluoritop-SR® and bifluorid-12® groups in the present study (p < 0.001) were statistically comparable.

Varnishes provide a useful alternative for caries control in special-need patients such as those with developmental disabilities, those receiving head and neck radiation and patients on chronic oral medication [9] .

   Conclusion Top

Since Fluoritop-SR® is easily available and cost effective, it can be used in caries preventive programmes : in both private programme and the public health in the country like India, where preventive dental health programmes as still a far of reality for most children.[19]

   References Top

1.Brown JP, Lazar V. The economic state of dentistry, an overview, J Am Dent Assoc. 1998; 129:1682-1691.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Betran-Aguilar ED, Goldstein JW, Lockwood SA : Fluoride varnishes - a review of their clinical use, cariostatic mechanism, efficacy, and safety. J Am Dent Assoc 2000; 131: 589-596.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Baud CA, Bang S. Electron probe and X-ray diffraction microanalysis of human enamel treated in vivo by fluoride solution. Caries Res 1970; 4 : 1-13.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  
4.Mellberg IR, Leakso PV, Nicholson CR. The acquisition and less of fluoride by topically fluoridated human tooth enamel. Arch Oral Biol 1966;11:1213-1220.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Brudevold F, McCann HG, Nilson R. The chemistry of caries inhibition problem and challenges in topical treatments. J Dent Res 1967;46:37-45.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Brunn C, Munksgaard EC, Stoltze K uptake and retention of fluoride by intact enamel in vivo after application of neutral sodium fluoride. ScandJDentRes 1973; 81:92-100.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.De Bruyn, Arends J. Fluoride varnishes a reviewJBio Buccale 1987; 15: 71-82.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Tewari A, Chawala HS. Comparative evaluation of the role ofNaF, APF and puraphat topical fluoride applications in the prevention of Dental caries 92'/2 years study. J Indian Soc PedodPrev Dent 1990; 8: 28-35.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Connexty HV, Briggs AR. Determination of serum calcium by means of orthocresolphalein complexone. Am J Clin Path 1966; 45: 200-6.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Alkinson A, Gatenby AD, Lowe AG. The determination of inorganic orthophosphate in biological systems. Biochem Biophys Acta 1973;320:195-204.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Howard BJ. Clinical and pathologic microbiology : St. Louis. Mosby (2 nd Ed.); pp. 161-66.  Back to cited text no. 11    
12.Mackie and McCartney. Pratical medical microbiology. Churchill Livingstone (13 th Edi.) 1989; pp. 173-4.  Back to cited text no. 12    
13.Shellis RP, Duck Worth RM. Studies on the cariostatic mechanisms of fluoride. Int Dent J 1994; 44: (3 Supp 1): 263-73.  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.Luoma H, Luoma Ar. Differences in pH fall, phosphorous content and dissolution of enamel in layers of the oral bacterium streptococcus mutans deposited in vitro on bovine enamel granules with and without fluoride. Varnish Arch Oral Biol 1982; 27:1007- 1011.  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Edenholm H, Johnson G, Koch G, Peterson LG; Fluoride uptake and release in deciduous enamel after applications of fluoride varnishes an in vitro pilot study. Swed Dent J 1977; 1: 59­64.  Back to cited text no. 15    
16.Relief DH, Sorvas PG, Bradley EL, Taylor RE, Walker AR. In vitro fluoride uptake, distribution and retention by human enamel after one and 24 hour application of various topical fluoride agents. J Dent Res 1980; 59: 573-582.  Back to cited text no. 16    
17.Seppa L, Hausen H, Luoma H. Relationship between caries and fluoride uptake of enamel from two fluoride varnishes in a community with fluoridated water. Caries Res 1982; 16: 404-412.  Back to cited text no. 17    
18.DJ Kman AG, Deboer P, Arends J. In vivo investigation of the fluoride content in and on human enamel after topical application. Caries Res 1983; 17: 392-402.  Back to cited text no. 18    
19.Tveit AB. Fluoride uptake by enamel surfaces, root surfaces and cavity walls, following application of fluoride varnish in vitro. Caries Res 1980; 14: 315-323.  Back to cited text no. 19    

Correspondence Address:
Balwant Rai
Government Dental College, Pt. Bhagwat Dayal Sharma, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Science, Haryana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.42314

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