Journal of Conservative Dentistry
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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Nov-Dec 2016
Volume 19 | Issue 6
Page Nos. 497-592

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EDITORIAL  

J Conserv Dent: 2008 - 2016: An appraisal p. 497
Velayutham Gopikrishna, Nandini Suresh, Jogikalmat Krithika Datta, Spoorthy Eruvaram, Priyanka Ashok, Meera Ramaswamy, Savitha Seshadri, Swapna Pradeepa
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194027  PMID:27994308
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Effect of carbodiimide on the structural stability of resin/dentin interface p. 501
Payal Singh, Rajni Nagpal, Udai Pratap Singh, Naveen Manuja
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194020  PMID:27994309
Clinical longevity of composite resin restorations is a significant problem in adhesive dentistry. Most of the current simplified adhesives present good immediate bonding, but the bond strength gradually falls over a period due to biodegradation at the resin-dentin interface. Various strategies have been proposed to improve the durability of resin-dentin bond including the use of matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors and collagen cross-linkers, biomimetic remineralization, ethanol wet bonding, to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the bonding substrate, i.e., dentin. However, all are under preliminary research and without any conclusive evidence. Therefore, this paper addresses the current challenge in dental adhesion, i.e., poor durability of resin-dentin bond and introduces the concept of dentin biomodification as an alternative way for improving the long-term bonding effectiveness of current adhesives to dentin and also provides an overview of a synthetic collagen cross-linking agent carbodiimide (EDC) including its mechanism of action, literature review of studies evaluating EDC, variables associated with its use and its cytotoxicity. Search was performed across the electronic databases (PubMed, Ebsco host, and Google search engine) to identify manuscripts for inclusion, using the keywords: carbodiimide, dentin bonding, durability, resin-dentin interface, and collagen cross-linking. Thirty-five articles were finally included, and the last search was made in February 2016.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Clinical performance of Class I nanohybrid composite restorations with resin-modified glass-ionomer liner and flowable composite liner: A randomized clinical trial p. 510
Krishtipati Suhasini, Koppolu Madhusudhana, Chinni Suneelkumar, Anumula Lavanya, KS Chandrababu, Perisetty Dinesh Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194030  PMID:27994310
Background: Liners play a vital role in minimizing polymerization shrinkage stress by elastic bonding concept and increase the longevity and favorable outcome for composite restorations. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of nanohybrid composite restorations using resin-modified glass-ionomer and flowable composite liners. Settings and Design: A single-centered, double-blinded randomized clinical trial, with split-mouth design and equal allocation ratio that was conducted in the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics. Materials and Methods: In forty patients, a total of eighty Class I restorations were placed with resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) liner (FUJI II LC, GC America) in one group and flowable composite liner (smart dentin replacement/SDR, Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE, USA) in another group. All restorations were clinically evaluated by two examiners, immediately (baseline), 3, 6, and 12 months using US Public Health Service modified criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using McNemar's test (P < 0.05). Results: There was no significant difference in the color match, marginal discoloration, surface roughness, and marginal adaptation. Restorations with RMGIC liner group show 20% Bravo scores on anatomic form at 12 months but are still clinically acceptable. Conclusion: Nanohybrid composite restorations with RMGIC (Fuji II LC) and flowable composite liner (SDR) demonstrated clinically acceptable performance after 12 months.
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The influence of the lining material on the repair of the infected dentin in young permanent molars after restoration: A randomized clinical trial p. 516
Eunice Kuhn, Alessandra Reis, Ana Claudia Rodrigues Chibinski, Denise Stadler Wambier
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194026  PMID:27994311
Aim: This study evaluated the impact of liner material on the fluorescence, morphological and mineral characteristics of permanent carious dentin after cavity sealing. Methods: Thirty children (11.0 ± 2.7 years old) presenting at least one active deep carious lesion in permanent molars were selected. Fragments of carious dentin were removed from teeth before lining the cavity (baseline samples) with high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (G1) or an inert material (wax - G2). Cavities were restored with composite resin and reopened 60 days later, and other fragments were removed (60-day sample). The laser fluorescence (LF) readings and morphological and mineral changes of both groups were compared. Results: After 60 days, forty teeth were available for evaluation. Lower LF means were obtained (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P< 0.05), and enhanced calcium and phosphorus levels were detected for both groups (t-test, P< 0.05). An uptake of fluorine was observed only in G1 (t-test; P< 0.05). Regardless of the group, baseline samples exhibited clear signs of bacterial invasion, and the collagen fibers were exposed; the 60-day samples showed a better-organized tissue with a more compact intertubular dentin. Conclusion: Caries arrestment with dentin reorganization occurs regardless of the lining material placed in contact with the infected dentin.
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Cytotoxicity of two available mineral trioxide aggregate cements and a new formulation on human gingival fibroblasts p. 522
Maryam Torshabi, Reza Amid, Mahdi Kadkhodazadeh, Sara Eslami Shahrbabaki, Fahimeh S Tabatabaei
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194033  PMID:27994312
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of nanohybrid mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in comparison with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and MTA-Angelus, using human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Materials and Methods: Nine disc-shaped specimens of each material (in 2 set stat: A, set for 24 h; B, set for 30 min; and C, fresh stat) were prepared. HGFs were exposed to tested materials' extracts or control media. Cytotoxicity testing was performed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay in two time intervals. Statistical Analysis: Results were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and t-test. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Results: CEM cement demonstrated favorable cell viability values when completely set (24 h set MTA = 24 h set CEM) at both time intervals. Interestingly, 24 h after incubation, CEM in Groups B and C demonstrated higher cell viability values than MTA (P < 0.05). However, after 72 h of incubation, these groups of CEM and MTA showed equal cell viability. All samples of nanohybrid MTA had slight cytotoxic effects after 24 h of incubation, and moderate cytotoxic effects after 72 h of incubation. Conclusion: Set CEM and set MTA-Angelus exerted similar, favorable effects on cell viability. However, within the limitations of this in vitro study, the results suggest that nanohybrid MTA could not be recommended as a material of choice for cervical root resorption.
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A comparative evaluation of anesthetic efficacy of articaine 4% and lidocaine 2% with anterior middle superior alveolar nerve block and infraorbital nerve block: An in vivo study p. 527
Suma Prahlad Saraf, Prahlad Annappa Saraf, Laxmikant Kamatagi, Santosh Hugar, Shridevi Tamgond, Jayakumar Patil
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194021  PMID:27994313
Background: The ideal maxillary injection should produce a rapid onset of profound pulpal anesthesia for multiple teeth from a single needle penetration. The main objective is to compare the efficacy of articaine 4% and lidocaine 2% and to compare anterior middle superior alveolar nerve block (AMSANB) and infraorbital nerve block (IONB) for anesthesia of maxillary teeth. Materials and Methods: Forty patients undergoing root canal treatment of maxillary anteriors and premolars were included and randomly divided into four groups of ten each. Group I: patients receiving AMSANB with articaine, Group II: Patients receiving IONB with articaine, Group III: Patients receiving AMSANB with lidocaine, Group IV: Patients receiving IONB with lidocaine. The scores of onset of anesthesia and pain perception were statistically analyzed. Results: Onset of action was fastest for articaine with AMSANB and slowest for lidocaine with IONB by Tukey's test. A significant change was observed in the electrical pulp test readings at onset and at 30 min by paired t-test. All patients experienced mild pain during the procedure recorded by visual analog scale. Conclusion: Articaine 4% proved to be more efficacious than lidocaine 2%, and AMSANB was more advantageous than IONB in securing anesthesia of maxillary anteriors and premolars.
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Comparative evaluation of the microtensile bond strength of bulk fill and low shrinkage composite for different depths of Class II cavities with the cervical margin in cementum: An in vitro study p. 532
Sonali Taneja, Pragya Kumar, Avnish Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194023  PMID:27994314
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of bulk fill and low shrinkage composite for different depths of Class II cavities with the cervical margin in cementum. Materials and Methods: Standardized conservative box-shaped Class II cavities were prepared on sixty sound-impacted human third molars. The samples were randomly divided into two groups: Group I (n = 30) - horizontal incremental technique and Group II (n = 30) - bulk fill technique (SonicFill). They were further subdivided into three subgroups of (n = 10) samples each according to the different occluso-gingival height: subgroup (A - 4 mm, B - 5 mm, and C - 6 mm). The gingival margins for all the samples were located 1 mm below the cementoenamel junction. The restored samples were subjected to thermocycling (500 cycles) followed by μTBS testing. The scores were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc test using SPSS software version 16. Results: Subgroups IA and IB showed lower μTBS than subgroups IIA and IIB (P < 0.05) whereas subgroup IC showed higher μTBS than subgroup IIC (P < 0.05). SonicFill showed a significant reduction in μTBS as the depth increased. Conclusion: SonicFill should be used in two increments for cavities with a depth of more than 5 mm.
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Histological evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and enamel matrix derivative combination in direct pulp capping: An in vivo study p. 536
Indira Priyadarshini Bollu, L Deepa Velagula, Nagesh Bolla, K Kiran Kumar, Archana Hari, Jayaprakash Thumu
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194031  PMID:27994315
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the response of human pulp tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Emdogain (EMD), and combination of MTA/EMD. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on sixty intact first and second premolars of human maxillary and mandibular teeth. A standard pulpal exposure was done on all the teeth and was divided into three groups of twenty teeth each and was capped with MTA, EMD, and MTA/EMD combination. The final restoration was done with resin-modified glass ionomer cement. The teeth were then extracted on the 15th or 45th day and histological evaluation done. Results: Differences in inflammatory response and thickness of dentin bridge formation of the exposed pulp to the three different groups were statistically evaluated using Chi-square and Mann–Whitney tests and were found to be significant. No significant difference was found between MTA/EMD and MTA in terms of calcified bridge formation and pulp inflammatory response to the capping materials. Conclusions: MTA and MTA/EMD combination produced a better quality hard tissue response compared with the use of EMD.
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Evaluation of Enterococcus faecalis adhesion, penetration, and method to prevent the penetration of Enterococcus faecalis into root cementum: Confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope analysis p. 541
Rahul S Halkai, Mithra N Hegde, Kiran R Halkai
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194025  PMID:27994316
Aim: To ascertain the role of Enterococcus faecalis in persistent infection and a possible method to prevent the penetration of E. faecalis into root cementum. Methodology: One hundred and twenty human single-rooted extracted teeth divided into five groups. Group I (control): intact teeth, Group II: no apical treatment done, Group III divided into two subgroups. In Groups IIIa and IIIb, root apex treated with lactic acid of acidic and neutral pH, respectively. Group IV: apical root cementum exposed to lactic acid and roughened to mimic the apical resorption. Group V: apical treatment done same as Group IV and root-end filling done using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Apical one-third of all samples immersed in E. faecalis broth for 8 weeks followed by bone morphogenetic protein and obturation and again immersed into broth for 8 weeks. Teeth split into two halves and observed under confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope, organism identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques. Results: Adhesion and penetration was observed in Group IIIa and Group IV. Only adhesion in Group II and IIIB and no adhesion and penetration in Group I and V. Conclusion: Adhesion and penetration of E. faecalis into root cementum providing a long-term nidus for subsequent infection are the possible reason for persistent infection and root-end filling with MTA prevents the adhesion and penetration.
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Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the influence of manual and mechanical glide path on the surface of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in moderately curved root canals: An in-vivo study p. 549
Dishant Patel, Kusum Bashetty, A Srirekha, S Archana, B Savitha, R Vijay
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194035  PMID:27994317
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of manual versus mechanical glide path (GP) on the surface changes of two different nickel-titanium rotary instruments used during root canal therapy in a moderately curved root canal. Materials and Methods: Sixty systemically healthy controls were selected for the study. Controls were divided randomly into four groups: Group 1: Manual GP followed by RaCe rotary instruments, Group 2: Manual GP followed by HyFlex rotary instruments, Group 3: Mechanical GP followed by RaCe rotary instruments, Group 4: Mechanical GP followed by HyFlex rotary instruments. After access opening, GP was prepared and rotary instruments were used according to manufacturer's instructions. All instruments were evaluated for defects under standard error mean before their use and after a single use. The scorings for the files were given at apical and middle third. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test was used. Results: The results showed that there is no statistical difference between any of the groups. Irrespective of the GP and rotary files used, more defects were present in the apical third when compared to middle third of the rotary instrument. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that there was no effect of manual or mechanical GP on surface defects of subsequent rotary file system used.
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Resin bond strength to water versus ethanol-saturated human dentin pretreated with three different cross-linking agents p. 555
Bhuvan Shome Venigalla, Pinnamreddy Jyothi, Shekhar Kamishetty, Smitha Reddy, Ravi Chandra Cherukupalli, Depa Arun Reddy
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194019  PMID:27994318
Context: Resin-dentin bonds are unstable owing to hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation. Several approaches such as collagen cross-linking and ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) have been developed to overcome this problem. Collagen cross-linking improves the intrinsic properties of the collagen matrix. However, it leaves a water-rich collagen matrix with incomplete resin infiltration making it susceptible to fatigue degradation. Since EWB is expected to overcome the drawbacks of water-wet bonding (WWB), a combination of collagen cross-linking with EWB was tested. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of pretreatment with different cross-linking agents such as ultraviolet A (UVA)-activated 0.1% riboflavin, 1 M carbodiimide, and 6.5 wt% proanthocyanidin on the immediate and long-term bond strengths of an etch and rinse adhesive system to water- versus ethanol-saturated dentin within clinically relevant application time periods. Settings and Design: Long-term in vitro study evaluating the microtensile bond strength of adhesive-dentin interface after different surface pretreatments. Subjects and Methods: Eighty freshly extracted human molars were prepared to expose dentin, etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s rinsed, and grouped randomly. They were blot-dried and pretreated with different cross-linkers: 0.1% riboflavin for 2 min followed by UVA activation for 2 min; 1 M carbodiimide for 2 min; 6.5 wt% proanthocyanidin for 2 min and rinsed. They were then bonded with Adper Single Bond Adhesive (3M ESPE), by either WWB or EWB, followed by resin composite build-ups (Filtek Z350, 3M ESPE). Bonded specimens in each group were then sectioned and divided into two halves. Microtensile bond strength was tested in one half after 24 h and the other after 6 months storage in artificial saliva. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis was done using SPSS version 18 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Intergroup comparison of bond strength was done using ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's test, and intragroup comparison was done using paired t-test. Results: The microtensile bond strength of cross-linked groups was higher compared to control group (P < 0.001). EWB showed much higher bond strength values on cross-linked dentin compared to noncross-linked dentin. UVA-activated riboflavin group exhibited highest bond strengths followed by carbodiimide and proanthocyanidin groups, respectively, on both water- as well as ethanol-saturated dentin. Even after 6 months storage, cross-linked groups showed significantly higher values compared to initial bond strength values of control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: 0.1% riboflavin pretreatment of dentin followed by UVA activation for 2 min exhibited highest increase in bond strength values at 24 h and least reduction in bond strength values after 6 months storage compared to other groups. Biomodification of dentin using collagen cross-linking followed by EWB exhibited a synergistic effect in improving the resin-dentin bond durability.
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Comparative evaluation of microhardness of dentin treated with 4% titanium tetrafluoride and 1.23% acidic phosphate fluoride gel before and after exposure to acidic pH: An ex vivo study p. 560
Vivek Kandanuru, Koppolu Madhusudhana, Vamsi Krishna Ramachandruni, Harish Madhav Vitta, Lenin Babu
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194032  PMID:27994319
Aim: The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) and 1.23% acidic phosphate fluoride (APF) gel on the microhardness of human coronal dentin. Materials and Methods: Thirty noncarious extracted premolars were collected and sectioned buccolingually with the help of diamond disk. Exposing the sectioned surface, teeth were embedded in self-cure acrylic. Exposed coronal dentin was polished with abrasive papers starting with 220–5000 grit. Microhardness was evaluated by Vickers microhardness evaluator, at four different stages as follows - stage 1: Baseline values, Stage 2: Exposure of specimens to acidic environment at a pH 1 for 5 min, Stage 3: Application of 1.23% APF gel and 4% TiF4 (after dividing the specimens into two groups, i.e., Group A and B, respectively), and Stage 4: Followed by exposure of fluoridated specimens to acidic protocol as mentioned above. Results: Paired t-test was used to compare the readings between Groups A and B. Group B has shown greater resistance to decrease in microhardness of coronal dentin (P < 0.05) on exposure to acidic protocol. Conclusion: Due to acidic pH (1.5) of 4% TiF4, amount of increase in microhardness of dentin is <1.23% APF gel. 4% TiF4 was more effective in resisting demineralization than 1.23% APF gel.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES Top

Comparative assessment of efficacy of two different pretreatment single oral doses of betamethasone on inter-appointment and postoperative discomfort: An in vivo clinical evaluation p. 564
Hitesh Gyanani, Naveen Chhabra, Ghanshyam R Parmar
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194022  PMID:27994320
Aim: Study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two different pretreatment single oral doses of betamethasone on the incidence of inter-appointment flare up and postoperative discomfort. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients aged 18–59 years requiring endodontic treatment were selected and randomly assigned to three groups; single pretreatment oral dose of placebo or betamethasone in two different oral doses of 0.5 mg and 1 mg, respectively. Endodontic therapy was completed in two visits using triple antibiotic paste as intracanal medicament. Patients were given a questionnaire to record their pain at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after treatment. In the second visit, obturation was done, and the patients were again instructed to record their pain scores after treatment and discharged. The verbal rating scale was used for recording the pain scores. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and the Friedman test. Results: 0.5 mg betamethasone group showed least mean pain scores among all experimental groups; however, there was no statistically significant difference between any of the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Pretreatment single oral dose of betamethasone is an effective in managing endodontic flare-ups; however, the results were statistically insignificant.
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Comparison of the antimicrobial activity of direct pulp-capping materials: Mineral trioxide aggregate-Angelus and Biodentine p. 569
Taha Özyürek, Ebru Özsezer Demiryürek
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194018  PMID:27994321
Purpose: To compare the antimicrobial activity of the tricalcium silicate-based Biodentine (BD) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-Angelus cement with the aid of agar diffusion test. Materials and Methods: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecium were inoculated in the Brucella liquid medium and were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Thereafter, 100 >μl of the liquid culture of bacteria inoculated in the Mueller-Hinton agar with spread plate technique. Petri plates were dried in room temperature. For every microorganism, 3 petri plates were prepared (12 in total). In the medium, in every petri plate, 2 holes with 5 mm diameter and 2 mm depth were made. Afterward, BD and MTA-Angelus were filled into these holes under aseptic conditions according to the instructions of the manufacturing company. Then, the plates were kept in the incubator at 37°C for 24 h, and the diameters of the inhibition zones were measured with a digital caliper. Results: Inhibition zones formed by BD against E. coli and S. aureus were significantly larger than the zones formed by MTA-Angelus (P < 0.05). However, the inhibition zones formed by MTA-Angelus against P. aureus and E. faecium were larger than the zones formed by BD (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limits of the present study, tricalcium silicate-based MTA-Angelus and BD have antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, P. aureus, and E. faecium.
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Accuracy in the diagnosis of vertical root fractures, external root resorptions, and root perforations using cone-beam computed tomography with different voxel sizes of acquisition p. 573
Fernanda Paula Bragatto, Liogi Iwaki Filho, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa Kasuya, Mariliani Chicarelli, Alfredo Franco Queiroz, Wilton Mitsunari Takeshita, Lilian Cristina Vessoni Iwaki
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194029  PMID:27994322
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of images acquired with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the identification of three different root alterations. Materials and Methods: Forty human premolars were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 10): sound teeth (control), vertical root fracture (VRF), external root resorption (ERR), and root perforation (RP). After the root alterations had been produced, four teeth were randomly assembled into 10 macerated mandibles and submitted to CBCT. Images were acquired with five voxel sizes (0.125, 0.200, 0.250, 0.300, and 0.400 mm) and assessed by three experienced dental radiologists. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (accuracy) were calculated. The accuracy of imaging in different voxel sizes was compared with Tukey exact binomial test (α=5%). Results: Accuracy with voxel sizes 0.125, 0.200, and 0.250 mm was significantly higher in the detection of ERRs and VRFs than voxel sizes 0.300 and 0.400 mm. No statistical difference was found in terms of accuracy among any of the studied voxel sizes in the identification of RPs. Conclusions: Voxel size 0.125 mm produced images with the best resolution without increasing radiation levels to the patient when compared to voxel sizes 0.200 and 0.250 mm. Voxel sizes 0.300 and 0.400 mm should be avoided in the identification of root alterations.
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Shaping ability of reciprocating motion of WaveOne and HyFlex in moderate to severe curved canals: A comparative study with cone beam computed tomography p. 578
Gurram Samuel Simpsy, Girija S Sajjan, Padmaja Mudunuri, Jyothi Chittem, Nalam N. V. D. Prasanthi, Pankaj Balaga
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194028  PMID:27994323
Introduction: M-Wire and reciprocating motion of WaveOne and controlled memory (CM) wire) of HyFlex were the recent innovations using thermal treatment. Therefore, a study was planned to evaluate the shaping ability of reciprocating motion of WaveOne and HyFlex using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methodology: Forty-five freshly extracted mandibular teeth were selected and stored in saline until use. All teeth were scanned pre- and post-operatively using CBCT (Kodak 9000). All teeth were accessed and divided into three groups. (1) Group 1 (control n = 15): Instrumented with ProTaper. (2) Group 2 (n = 15): Instrumented with primary file (8%/25) WaveOne. (3) Group 3 (n = 15): Instrumented with (4%/25) HyFlex CM. Sections at 1, 3, and 5 mm were obtained from the pre- and post-operative scans. Measurement was done using CS3D software and Adobe Photoshop software. Apical transportation and degree of straightening were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: HyFlex showed lesser apical transportation when compared to other groups at 1 and 3 mm. WaveOne showed lesser degree of straightening when compared to other groups. Conclusion: This present study concluded that all systems could be employed in routine endodontics whereas HyFlex and WaveOne could be employed in severely curved canals.
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Push-out bond strength of different translucent fiber posts cemented with self-adhesive resin cement p. 583
João Fernando Bazzo, Maria Beatriz Bergonse Pereira Pedriali, Ricardo Danil Guiraldo, Sandrine Bittencourt Berger, Sandra Kiss Moura, Rodrigo Varella de Carvalho
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194036  PMID:27994324
Purpose: Evaluate the bond strength of different translucent fiber posts in the cervical, middle, and apical root thirds cemented with self-adhesive resin cement. Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted teeth were randomly divided into five groups according to the fiber post used: Reforpost (opaque [control]), exacto, white post, radix, and Macro-Lock Illusion X-RO. The roots were subjected to chemomechanical preparation and cemented with self-adhesive resin cement. The teeth were sectioned into slices of the different root thirds and tested for bond strength (push-out). Two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test were used to verify statistical differences between groups (P < 0.05). Results: No significant difference between the root thirds was detected (P > 0.05). However, the performance of the posts demonstrated a significant difference (P < 0.05). RDX had a lower performance in the apical third (P < 0.05). The other fiber posts had the same performance irrespective of the root third evaluated. The predominant failure pattern was adhesive between resin cement and root dentin. Conclusion: In general, the different translucent fiber posts showed the same performance. Yet, translucent fiber posts did not show superior bond strength compared with the opaque fiber post in any of the root thirds evaluated.
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CASE REPORT Top

Successful orthograde treatment of dens invaginatus Type 3 with a main C-shaped canal based on cone-beam computed tomography evaluation p. 587
Michael Solomonov, Joe Ben Itzhak, Avi Levin, Vered Katzenell, Avi Shemesh
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194034  PMID:27994325
Dens invaginatus is a rare anatomic variation that is found primarily in maxillary lateral incisors. The management of dens invaginatus is challenging for clinicians; diagnosing the type of malformation, choosing the most appropriate treatment, and carrying out treatment are complicated by the intricate root system of these teeth. The following case report describes the diagnosis and treatment planning of dens invaginatus Type 3 after cone-beam computed tomography evaluation.
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IACDE CDE REPORT Top

2nd International and 5th National Conference of Endodontics and Conservative Dentistry Clinical Research 2016: Report p. 591
Arunajatesan Subbiya
DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.194024  
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